The evolution of processors
The development of processors first basic parameter denotes its superiority over previous models was core clock. And all were guided by the fact that the computer has a processor with a frequency of 1.8 GHz, the next processor has a frequency 2.5 GHz, and so on, but the time has come when the frequency was reached about 4 GHz processors and then peaked development. Increasing the frequency of the processor was not possible because of the critical noise reduction stability and instability of the processor.
But evolution does not stand still, the problem was solved by increasing productivity at the expense of increasing the frequency of the nucleus, and by increasing the number of cores, appeared with two processors, then a 4-core, etc. But again increase the number of cores entailed an increase in energy consumption appeared computers with different types of cooling systems up to a water cooling circuits. But everyone knew that was not an option.
The main task of manufacturers of processors has been reducing energy consumption and energy intensity of the main criterion is the thickness of the layer on which the semiconductor elements are made (transistors, resistors). The thinner the layer of the less need to spend energy for the processor. Therefore, over the years the development of processors went like this:
Evolution of the generation of processors by year
- 3 mkm- Zilog (Z80) and in 1979 Intel (Intel 8086). Legendary processors have received their distribution in the consumer electronics and computers such as the first Spectrum.
- 1,5 mkm— 1982
- 0,8 mkm —late 1980s - early 1990s
- 0,6 mkm -1994—1995
- 0,35 mkm(350 nm) — 1997
- 0,25 mkm (250 nm) — 1998
- 0,18 mkm (180 nm)— 1999
- 0,13 mkm (130 nm) — 2000—2001
- 90 nm — 2002—2003
- 65 nm (0,065 mkm) — 2004
- 50 nm (0,050 mkm)— 2005
- 45 nm (0,045 mkm) —2006—2007
- 32 nm (0,032 mkm)- 2009—2010
- 28 nm (0,028 mkm)-2010
- 20 nm (0,020 mkm)— 2009—2012
- 16 nm FinFET- 2015
- 14 nm (0,014 mkm)- 2015
- 10 nm (0,01 mkm) -Issue processor on 10 nm technology is planned for 2016.
Now the processor is characterized not only the frequency of the processor, the number of cores, as well as a technology made the chip such as 28nm.
Useful information to specify the production technology can not be held but allows the manufacturer in terms of marketing such as highlight your product and show its feature.