What you should know about Intel processors. There are only two companies that make processors for powerful computers; they are Intel and AMD. You may say, stop, but there is Apple Mac with M1 processors; since 2020, Apple has started to install ARM-based processors in its computers. But you have to know that ARM is inferior to Intel in terms of performance and to perform the same number of tasks as the Intel processor, you need several times more cores. Apple’s most powerful ARM processor, the Apple M1 Ultra, has 20 central cores, 48 to 64 graphics cores, and 32 accelerator cores.
For example, the Intel Core i9 2022 has 24 cores and a graphics processor.
And another example is in servers where high performance is required; mainly, Intel processors are used. For example, the company Huawei tried to create a server c ARM processor in the server installed ARM processors with a total number of cores from 256 to 512. Still, the practice has shown that the server was inferior to servers with Intel processors.
Intel CPU lines
Now, very briefly, the processor lines that Intel offers.
Intel Xeon Scalable – processors for servers and storage systems. Processors for business.
Intel Xeon – processors are entry-level business processors used in low-power servers and workstations.
Intel Core – processors for computers and laptops.
Pentium – low-power processors for entry-level computers.
Celeron – low-powered processors usually used in computers and laptops for web surfing.
Intel Atom – energy-efficient series of processors for tablets.
Intel processor generations
Each line of processors has different generations of processors. Processors are constantly being improved. Both new features are added, and the lithography of the processors is improved. You may be wondering why I need to know the Intel processor generation. I will tell you about a case that happened to me. An acquaintance suggested I buy a MacBook Pro; his wife’s computer is not using it now; the computer was purchased in 2018. I looked at the serial number and determined the manufacturing date; yes, until 2021, the Apple serial number had a manufacturing date. Indeed, the computer was manufactured in April 2018, but its processor was a 2016 sixth generation. Buying a 2018 computer in 2021 with a 2016 processor seemed impractical, and I declined the purchase.
What is processor lithography?
To explain it simply, lithography is the manufacturing process of a processor, how thick a layer is sprayed on to produce the transistors and capacitors, the resistors on the substrate of the processor. The thinner the coating, the less power the processor consumes. Consequently, the processor can be made faster with the same power. Or a 6th-generation processor, for example, consumes twice as much energy as a 13th-generation processor for the same performance. In the picture, you can see how processors have evolved.
The evolution of processor cores from Intel
Although the figure shows the evolution to the 10-nm process technology, 7-nm processors are now being produced.
Differences in the Core i3, i5, i7, i9 processor series
- Core i3 – low-cost processors; these processors have a small number of physical cores and a small amount of memory cache.
- Core i5 – processors are mid-range processors. Higher performance is achieved by having more physical cores and more cache memory.
- Core i7 – the processors have more physical cores with the obligatory usage of INTEL® HYPER THREADING TECHNOLOGY.
- Core i9 – even more physical cores, the cache memory is also increased; the i9 series was conceived as a competitor to AMD gaming processors. The Core i9 started being released in 2018. More cores – more speed.
- Core X – is a marketing series of processors (i5, i7, i9) distinguished by higher speed and price. The last Core X-series processors were the tenth generation.
- Core M – ultra-low power processor, for ultra-slim leptops
Intel Core series generation by year
|Core i3||1st Gen||1st Gen||1st Gen||2nd Gen 3rd Gen||3rd Gen||4th Gen||4th Gen||4th Gen 5th Gen 6th Gen||6th Gen 7th Gen||7th Gen 8th Gen||7th Gen 8th Gen||8th Gen 9th Gen 10th Gen||10th Gen 11th Gen||10th Gen 11th Gen||12th Gen|
|Core i5||1st Gen||1st Gen||1st Gen||2rd Gen 3rd Gen||3rd Gen||4th Gen||4th Gen||5th Gen 6th Gen||6th Gen 7th Gen||7th Gen 8th Gen||8th Gen 9th Gen||8th Gen 9th Gen 10th Gen||10th Gen 11th Gen||10th Gen 11th Gen 12th Gen||12th Gen 13th Gen||13th Gen|
|Core i7||1st Gen||1st Gen||1st Gen||2rd Gen 3rd Gen||3rd Gen||4th Gen||4th Gen||4th Gen 5th Gen 6th Gen||6th Gen 7th Gen||7th Gen 8th Gen||8th Gen 9th Gen||8th Gen 9th Gen 10th Gen||10th Gen 11th Gen||10th Gen 11th Gen 12th Gen||12th Gen 13th Gen||13th Gen|
|Core i9||7th Gen||8th Gen 9th Gen||9th Gen 10th Gen||10th Gen||11th Gen 12th Gen||12th Gen 13th Gen||13th Gen|
|Core M||5th Gen||6th Gen||7th Gen||7th Gen||8th Gen|
|Core X||3rd Gen||3rd Gen||4th Gen||4th Gen 5th Gen||6th Gen||7th Gen||9th Gen||10th Gen|
I have made a table of all generations of Core series processors. You can find out which years a particular processor generation was released. You should also be aware that the release of the same age of processors can be over several years. For example, the Core i7 12th generation, the release of new processor models from 2021 to 2022.
- 1 generation – made on 45nm technology in 2010 and 32nm technology, the development of 2008-2010 years, without integrated graphics.
- 2 generation – 32nm technology, intel graphics 2000, 3000, release 2011.
- 3 generation – 32-22nm technology, the Intel 4000 graphics, release of 2011-2012.
- 4 generation – 22nm technology, Intel 4600-5200 release schedule in 2013 year.
- 5 generation – technology 14nm and 22nm, Intel 6200 graphics release 2014-2015.
- 6 generation – technology 14nm, Intel 530-580 graphics release 2015-2016.
- 7 generation – 14nm technology, Intel 610-620 graphics release 2016-2017.
- 8th generation – 14nm technology, Intel 615-655 graphics, there are various graphics modifications that support HD and UHD screen resolutions, release 2017-2018
- 9th generation – 14nm technology, Intel UHD 630 graphics, release 2018-2019. Technologies are used in various combinations depending on the type of processor.
- 10th generation Core processors – UHD Graphics 630 GPU, release 2019-2020.
- 11th generation processors – UHD Graphics 750 GPU, release 2020-2021.
- 12th generation Core processors – UHD 770 GPU, release 2021-2022.
- 13th generation Core processors – UHD 770 GPU, release 2022-2023.
Intel Pentium series generation by year
The Pentium line of processors has been produced since 1993; it has many series; I will not look at very old processors; they are already obsolete. Let’s look at the following Intel processor series and see what year the processor was released.
- Intel Pentium Gold Processor Series
- Intel Pentium Silver Processor Series
- Intel Pentium Processor D Series
- Intel Pentium Processor G Series
- Intel Pentium Processor J Series
- Intel Pentium Processor N Series
- Intel Pentium Processor 6800 Series
- Intel Pentium Processor 4000 Series
- Intel Pentium Processor 3000 Series
- Intel Pentium Processor 2000 Series
- Intel Pentium Processor 1000 Series
- Legacy Intel Pentium Processor
Pentium processor list release
|Intel Pentium Gold Processor Series||✔︎||✔︎||✔︎||✔︎||✔︎||✔︎|
|Intel Pentium Silver Processor Series||✔︎||✔︎||✔︎|
|Intel Pentium Processor D Series||✔︎||✔︎|
|Intel Pentium Processor G Series||✔︎||✔︎||✔︎||✔︎||✔︎|
|Intel Pentium Processor J Series||✔︎||✔︎||✔︎|
|Intel Pentium Processor N Series||✔︎||✔︎||✔︎||✔︎||✔︎|
|Intel Pentium Processor 6800 Series||✔︎|
|Intel Pentium Processor 4000 Series||✔︎|
|Intel Pentium Processor 3000 Series||✔︎||✔︎|
|Intel Pentium Processor 2000 Series||✔︎||✔︎|
|Intel Pentium Processor 1000 Series||✔︎||✔︎||✔︎||✔︎|
|Legacy Intel Pentium Processor||✔︎||✔︎||✔︎||✔︎||✔︎||✔︎|
For Pentium processors, you need to look at the model number of the processor. Take, for example, the N series; the first release was in 2013, new models were introduced until 2016, then a break and the new processor was presented again in 2021.
Intel Atom series generation by year
Atom processors have been produced since 2008. During the lifetime of this processor line, the following Atom processor series has been made.
- Intel Atom Processor C Series
- Intel Atom Processor D Series
- Intel Atom Processor E Series
- Intel Atom Processor N Series
- Intel Atom Processor P Series
- Intel Atom Processor S Series
- Intel Atom Processor X Series
- Intel Atom Processor Z Series
- Legacy Intel Atom Processors
Atom processor list release
|Intel Atom Processor C Series||✔︎||✔︎||✔︎||✔︎||✔︎||✔︎|
|Intel Atom Processor D Series||✔︎||✔︎|
|Intel Atom Processor E Series||✔︎||✔︎|
|Intel Atom Processor N Series||✔︎|
|Intel Atom Processor P Series||✔︎||✔︎|
|Intel Atom Processor S Series||✔︎|
|Intel Atom Processor X Series||✔︎||✔︎||✔︎|
|Intel Atom Processor Z Series||✔︎||✔︎||✔︎||✔︎|
|Legacy Intel Atom Processors||✔︎||✔︎||✔︎||✔︎|
Intel Xeon series generation by year
Xeon is a relatively old line of processors for workstations and servers. The first release was in 1998. The Xeon line consists of the following processor series.
- 3rd Generation Intel Xeon Scalable Processors
- 2nd Generation Intel Xeon Scalable Processors
- Intel Xeon Scalable Processors
- Intel Xeon E Processor
- Intel Xeon W Processor
- Intel Xeon D Processor
- Intel Xeon Processor E7 v4 Family
- Intel Xeon Processor E7 v3 Family
- Intel Xeon Processor E7 v2 Family
- Intel Xeon Processor E7 Family
- Intel Xeon Processor E5 v4 Family
- Intel Xeon Processor E5 v3 Family
- Intel Xeon Processor E5 v2 Family
- Intel Xeon Processor E5 Family
- Intel Xeon Processor E3 v6 Family
- Intel Xeon Processor E3 v5 Family
- Intel Xeon Processor E3 v4 Family
- Intel Xeon Processor E3 v3 Family
- Intel Xeon Processor E3 v2 Family
- Intel Xeon Processor E3 Family
- Legacy Intel Xeon Processors
XEON processor list release
|3rd Generation Intel Xeon Scalable Processors||✔︎||✔︎|
|2nd Generation Intel Xeon Scalable Processors||✔︎||✔︎|
|Intel Xeon Scalable Processors||✔︎||✔︎|
|Intel Xeon E Processor||✔︎||✔︎|
|Intel Xeon W Processor||✔︎||✔︎||✔︎||✔︎||✔︎|
|Intel Xeon D Processor||✔︎||✔︎||✔︎||✔︎||✔︎||✔︎|
|Intel Xeon Processor E7 v4 Family||✔︎||✔︎|
|Intel Xeon Processor E7 v3 Family||✔︎|
|Intel Xeon Processor E7 v2 Family||✔︎|
|Intel Xeon Processor E7 Family||✔︎|
|Intel Xeon Processor E5 v4 Family||✔︎|
|Intel Xeon Processor E5 v3 Family||✔︎||✔︎|
|Intel Xeon Processor E5 v2 Family||✔︎||✔︎|
|Intel Xeon Processor E5 Family||✔︎|
|Intel Xeon Processor E3 v6 Family||✔︎|
|Intel Xeon Processor E3 v5 Family||✔︎||✔︎|
|Intel Xeon Processor E3 v4 Family||✔︎|
|Intel Xeon Processor E3 v3 Family||✔︎||✔︎|
|Intel Xeon Processor E3 v2 Family||✔︎||✔︎|
|Intel Xeon Processor E3 Family||✔︎||✔︎|
|Legacy Intel Xeon Processors||✔︎||✔︎||✔︎||✔︎||✔︎|